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American Psychological Association (APA)

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APA Style Examples
Please Note: These examples are for reference only.  For complete style guidance,  you must consult the manual.

To Find More Style Information:
 
•  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).............................REF DESK BF 76.7.P83 2010
          (Kept at Reference Desk --3000 North; other copies in Stacks and Reference)
•  APA online....................................................................................................................http://www.apastyle.org/
•  Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)………………….....................................................….http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl

Style Examples:

•  Use double-spacing for a manuscript.  Single spacing may be acceptable for a class paper.  Ask your instructor.

•  "APA publishes references in a hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented."  (Rule 2.11).


BOOK:

Anderson, K. (2010). Agitations: Ideologies and strategies in African American politics. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press.


ELECTRONIC BOOK:

Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories: Enhancing the understanding of the complexity, subjectivity and dynamic of leadership. [SpringerLink version].  Retrieved from http://proxy.library.eiu.edu:2048/login?url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7908-2158-1


JOURNAL ARTICLE:
A word about DOIs
The DOI (digital object identifier) system was developed by a group of international publishers to provide a means of persistent identification for items in digital formats.  APA recommends including the DOI in article citations when it is available.  If an article has a DOI assigned, it can typically be found on the first page of the electronic journal article near the copyright notice.  The DOI also often appears in the database record for the article.


With DOI:

Kanazawa, S. (2010). Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research. American Psychologist, 65, 279-289. doi: 10.1037/a0019378


If article is available in print:

Radavich, D. (2008). Tennessee Williams’ St. Louis on stage. Tennessee Williams Literary Journal 6(1), 10-22.


No DOI, retrieved online:
“If there is no DOI assigned and the reference was retrieved online, give the URL of the journal home page.” (Rule 7.01.3)
 

Hynes, S., Hanley, N., & O’Donoghue, C. (2010). A combinatorial optimization approach to nonmarket environmental benefit aggregation via simulated populations. Land Economics, 86, 345-362. Retrieved from http://uwpress.wisc.edu/ journals/journals/le.html



NEWSPAPER ARTICLE:
No author:

Sudden acceleration death toll rises. (2010, May 26). The New York Times, p. B2.


One author:

Pear, R. (2010, April 5). New health initiatives put spotlight on prevention. The New York Times, p. A10.


CHAPTER IN A BOOK: 

Brandwein, R. (2009). Mom had Alzheimer’s. In R.D. Gore & V. Starsia (Eds.), Voices of caregiving: The healing companion: stories for courage, comfort and strength. (pp. 17-21). New York: LaChance Publishing.


ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRY WITH NO BYLINE:

Mollusks. (2007). In The new encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 24, pp. 296-322). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.


VIDEO:

American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2008). Treating clients with generalized anxiety disorder [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/


GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Studies. (2005). Mentally healthy aging: A report on overcoming stigma for older Americans (DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05-3988). Retrieved from http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS80214


ERIC DOCUMENT:

Bonilla, C.A., Lauderdale, K., & Roberson, J.L. (1998). Chaotic conversation:  A foray into the complex world of communication. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED 432717)

Writing Center

For assistance with writing research papers, please contact:

The Writing Center
3110 Coleman Hall
217-581-5929.

http://www.eiu.edu/~writing/