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Government Shutdown

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Shutdown basics
A shutdown may be caused when the government has reached its spending limits and can no longer borrow money or pay off its loans, creating the need for a new budget proposal to be set and agreed upon in Congress.
Each year Congress funds the operation of federal agencies through an annual appropriations process. If an appropriations bill sent to the Executive branch by Congress is vetoed by the President, it is sent back to Congress to be overridden by a 2/3 majority or changed and re-approved. If an appropriations bill is not enacted into law by the House of Representatives, or the Senate or the Executive Branch, the Constitution and the Antideficiency Act require that shutdown procedures begin.
A government shutdown won’t mean the whole government shuts down: some services will continue to operate if they are deemed “essential”. These are services that pertain to national security or the protection of life and property, and services required to make benefit payments for entitlement programs which must continue to operate. Federal workers may or may not be deemed “essential.” Even if they are deemed so, they may not get paid for work during the shutdown. but are paid retroactively when Congress signs a new appropriations bil.


creator: Jeremy Eagle. Issues and Controversies: Government Shutdown (graph) copyright infobase learning 2013.[http://icof.infobaselearning.com/recurl.aspx?wid=95970&ID=6349]
Office of Management and Budget / (OMB)
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) assists the President in the preparation of his budget requests to Congress. It also instructs departments to plan for increases, adjustment for inflation, freezes in expenditures, and cutbacks or reductions in non-essential services. The final budget request from the President presented to Congress comes in 5 volumes and can total more than two-thousand pages on proposed spending for the fiscal year beginning October 1 and ending September 30. The OMB also handles staff work involved in presidential requests to defer or rescind spending authorized by Congress.


The Antideficiency Act
The Antideficiency Act, Public Law 97-258, 96-Stat. 923 has its origins in a post Civil War 1870 law (16 Stat. 251)* forbidding any officer or employee of the United States to “involve the Government in any contract or other obligation, for the payment of money for any purpose, in advance of appropriations made for such purpose, unless such contract or obligation is authorized by law.” It also prohibits the government from accepting voluntary services exceeding those authorized by law. (In other words, non-essential government employees cannot “volunteer to work without pay.”)
The Anti-Deficiency Act was designed to prevent government officials from incurring unauthorized obligations beyond what Congress intended to spend. Only in recent years have interpretations of the Act been used to address the consequences of lapses in spending authority.

* 16 Stat. 251 is an abbreviated way of referring to the _United States Statutes at Large_, a government publication of the official acts of Congress. The Statutes at Large are available in proint in the reference department of Booth Library call number: KF50 .u45x, online from the Government Printing Office (GPO) or review the United States Code Service (USCS) through Lexis Nexis (requires authentication).
Congressional Hearings: Shutdowns 1988-2
2014
                          image file of the white house

Congressional, Senate and House hearings relevant to sequestration or government shutdown are listed below, from newest to oldest and are available in paper or digital formats.
 
1. 2013 SEQUESTRATION: AGENCIES REDUCED SOME SERVICES AND INVESTMENTS, WHILE TAKING CERTAIN ACTIONS TO MITIGATE EFFECTS (2014)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
2. PROVIDING FOR CONSIDERATION OF THE BILL (H.R. 4870) MAKING APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 2015, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES (2014)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
3. SMALL BUSINESSES SPEAK: SURVIVING THE GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN? (2014)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.SM 1/2:S.HRG.113-346 & online
 
4. AS DIFFICULT AS POSSIBLE: THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE'S IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN (2014)  
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.G 74/7:113-116 & online
 
5. EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN ON VA BENEFITS AND SERVICES TO VETERANS (2014) 
Location: Electronic Federal Documents

2013
6. SEQUESTRATION ORDER FOR FISCAL YEAR 2013 (2013)  
Location: Electronic Federal Documents

7. THE IMPACT OF SEQUESTRATION ON EDUCATION (2013)  
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.AP 6/2:S.HRG.112-717 & online
 
8. THE COSTS AND IMPACTS OF CRISIS BUDGETING (2013)  
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.G 74/9:S.HRG.113-25 & online
 
9. IMPACT OF THE CONTINUING RESOLUTION, SEQUESTRATION, AND DECLINING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE BUDGETS ON MILITARY PERSONNEL AND FAMILY RELATED PROGRAMS (2013)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.AR 5/2 A:2013-2014/16 & online
 
10. SEQUESTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OPTIONS AND THE EFFECTS ON NATIONAL DEFENSE: ADMINISTRATION PERSPECTIVES (2013)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.AR 5/2 A:2011-2012/148 & online
 
11. OMB FINAL SEQUESTRATION REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2013 (2013)  
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
12. THE ECONOMIC COSTS OF DEBT-CEILING BRINKMANSHIP (2013)  
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.EC 7:S.HRG.113-127 & online
 
13. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DURING THE GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN AND DEBT LIMIT BRINKMANSHIP (2013)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
14. IMPACTS AND COSTS OF THE OCTOBER 2013 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN (2013)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
15. THE WAY FORWARD FROM GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN AND DEBT-CEILING CONFRONTATION TOWARD LONG-TERM FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH (2013)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.EC 7:S.HRG.113-121 & online
 
16. PROVIDING FOR CONSIDERATION OF THE SENATE AMENDMENT TO THE JOINT RESOLUTION (H.J. RES. 59) …MAKING CONTINUING APPROPRIATIONS FOR MILITARY PAY IN THE EVENT OF A GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN: REPORT (TO ACCOMPANY H. RES. 366) (2013)  
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
17. PROVIDING FOR CONSIDERATION OF THE JOINT RESOLUTION (H.J. RES. 70) MAKING CONTINUING APPROPRIATIONS FOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE OPERATIONS, THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, THE... (2013)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
18. AN ACT MAKING CONTINUING APPROPRIATIONS FOR MILITARY PAY IN THE EVENT OF A GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN (2013)  
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
19. THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AND THE FISCAL YEAR 2014 BUDGET (2013)  
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.B 85/3:113-6 & online
 
20. SEQUESTERING JUSTICE: HOW THE BUDGET CRISIS IS UNDERMINING OUR COURTS (2013)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.J 89/2:S.HRG.113-109 & online
 
21. CIVILIAN WORKFORCE REQUIREMENTS--NOW AND ACROSS THE FUTURE YEARS DEFENSE PROGRAM (2013)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.AR 5/2 A:2011-2012/147 & online
 
22. BUDGET COMMITTEE MID-SESSION HEARINGS FISCAL YEAR 2014 (2013)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.B 85/2:S.HRG.113-229
2012
23. SEQUESTER REPLACEMENT ACT OF 2012 (2012)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
24. SEQUESTER REPLACEMENT RECONCILIATION ACT OF 2012 (2012)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
25. SEQUESTRATION TRANSPARENCY ACT REPORT (2012)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
26. OMB REPORT PURSUANT TO THE SEQUESTRATION TRANSPARENCY ACT OF 2012 (P. L. 112-155) (2012)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
27. OMB FINAL SEQUESTRATION REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2012 (2012)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
28. CONFRONTING THE LOOMING FISCAL CRISIS (2012)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.F 49:S.HRG.112-779 & online
 
29. SEQUESTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OPTIONS AND THE EFFECTS ON NATIONAL DEFENSE : INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVES (2012)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.AR 5/2 A:2011-2012/142 & online
 
30. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PLANS FOR SEQUESTRATION: THE SEQUESTRATION TRANSPARENCY ACT OF 2012 REPORT AND THE WAY FORWARD (2012)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.AR 5/2 A:2011-2012/158 & .MFICHE
 
31. REPLACING THE SEQUESTER (2012)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.B 85/3:112-25 & online
 
32. THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AND THE FISCAL YEAR 2013 BUDGET (2012)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.B 85/3:112-22 & online
 
33. AN ACT TO REQUIRE THE PRESIDENT TO PROVIDE A REPORT DETAILING THE SEQUESTER REQUIRED BY THE BUDGET CONTROL ACT OF 2011 ON JANUARY 2, 2013 (2012)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
1988 - 2002
36. FINAL SEQUESTRATION REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2002 (2002)
Location: Electronic Federal Documents
 
37. BALANCED BUDGET ACT OF 1997 : IMPACT ON COST SAVINGS AND PATIENT CARE (1999)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y 4.C 73/8:106-67
 
38.       GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN I: WHAT'S ESSENTIAL? (1997)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y4.G74/7:SH9
 
39.       DEBT CEILING LIMIT ISSUE: HEARING BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON BANKING AND FINANCIAL SERVICES (1996)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y4.B22/1:104-42
 
40. STATE SERVICE DONATIONS IN BUDGETARY SHUTDOWN (1996)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y4.R31/3:104-51 & HathiTrust
 
41.       EFFECTS OF POTENTIAL GOVERNMENT SHUTDOWN (1995)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y4.B85/2:S.HRG.104-175 & HathiTrust
 
42.       BALANCED BUDGET ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1992 (1993)
Location: 1st floor, north – Document Microforms
Call Number: Y4.R86/1:B85/7.MFICHE
 
43.       H.R. 5676, BALANCED BUDGET ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1992 (1993)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y4.G74/7:B85/16
 
44. OMB SEQUESTRATION UPDATE REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS (1991)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: PREX2.2:SE6/3/UPDATE 
 
45. FINAL OMB SEQUESTER REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS FOR FISCAL YEAR 1991 (1990)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: PREX2.2:SE6/3
 
46. OMB INITIAL SEQUESTRATION REPORT (1988)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y4.B85/3:100-3
 
47. CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE SEQUESTRATION REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR 1988 (1988)
Location: 2nd floor, north - Federal Documents
Call Number: Y4.B85/2:S.HRG.100-389
Business Shutdowns & Re-training
FEDERAL
 
FIELD HEARING ON THE PROPOSED CLOSING OF THE OSCAR MAYER PLANT IN VERNON, CALIFORNIA  (1990)
Location: Illinois Documents – 2nd floor north
Call Number: Y4.ED8/1:101-116
 
 
ILLINOIS
 
WORKER ADJUSTMENT RETRAINING NOTIFICATION ACT (2003)
Location: Illinois Documents – 2nd floor north
Call Number: 331.25924 WORK
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to be added...
http://vufind.carli.illinois.edu/vf-eiu/Record/eiu_528295

http://vufind.carli.illinois.edu/vf-eiu/Record/eiu_1080479

http://vufind.carli.illinois.edu/vf-eiu/Record/eiu_391169